Habitat Restoration


(1) Approach

The Western Ghats is one of the world’s 34 biodiversity hotspots. The defined regions where 75% of the planet’s most threatened mammals, birds and amphibians survive within habitat covering just 2.3% of the Earth’s surface. By definition, this means that the Western Ghats hotspot holds at least 1,500 species of vascular plants (> 0.5 percent of the world’s total) as endemics; and that it has lost las vegas nv at least 70% of its original habitat due to the impact of human activities. Such is the importance of the Western Ghats that a set of seven clusters of national parks, sanctuaries reserved forests and other areas, stretching from Maharastra to Tamil Nadu and comprising 39 representative sites, has been nominated very recently (2010) by the Government of India for inclusion in the World Heritage List. This serial nomination is considered to be of outstanding universal value with respect to: representing major stages of earth's history (Criterion viii of the Operational Guidelines); and containing among the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity.

India, as a signatory to the Convention on bad credit Biological Diversity, is obliged to essentially identify and monitor the components of biological diversity for its conservation and sustainable use. This obligation requires extensive field surveys to perform an inventory of species and the ecosystems of which they are a part, providing a benchmark, or record in time and space, against which future changes can be measured. Such surveys and repeat surveys provide the means of monitoring changes in biological diversity, direct lender assessing its conservation status 2 builds and informing its management.

The Project provides a major opportunity to improve information and access to the knowledge on the diversity, distribution and conservation status of plant and animal species within Tamil Nadu’s existing protected areas and reserve forests, with special focus on the Western Ghats. This can be achieved through a variety of initiatives that will include the collation of spatial data from previous and ongoing surveys of flora and fauna, research and monitoring surveys undertaken by the Project for a variety of different purposes and, notably, the establishment of a long-term programme to monitor climate change and other impacts on biodiversity. The data will be managed in a centralised spatial database and the knowledge gained from these interventions will inform and instant network strengthen the future management and expansion of the State’s protected areas network, particularly in response to climate change and other environmental impacts.


(2) Rationale

This sub-component is focused on restoring and enhancing biodiversity within the existing network of protected areas (PAs), elephant reserves and reserve forests (RFs) by strengthening scientific understanding, building the technical capacity of the TNFD through training and working in partnership with scientific and academic institutions (including universities) and, thereby, deliver more effective protection and management of ecosystems and habitats through a range of interventions initiated under the Project.

Interventions are focused on wetlands, which are the principal ecosystem represented in all of the state’s 12 bird sanctuaries, controlling alien species that have invaded sholas and dry forests, and developing and implementing conservation plans for selected endemic species of plants and animals that are confirmed by further field surveys to be seriously in danger of becoming extinct in the wild. Where appropriate, including all bird sanctuaries and a number of other protected areas, existing management plans will be strengthened through participatory processes that address the key issues identified for biodiversity and those communities living in the vicinity.

A further major intervention will be to design and initiate a programme for long-term monitoring of the impacts of climate change on biodiversity in different vegetation types, representative of the full range of climatic and topographical condition prevailing within the State. Monitoring sites will need to be located within the least disturbed (core) parts of protected areas, given the long-term (30+ years) nature of this initiative which might otherwise be jeopardised by changes in land online use. Long-term monitoring will inform future management of biodiversity for conservation and sustainable use, while also providing valuable baseline data on biodiversity inventoried within these key, least disturbed sites. It will also enable priorities to be identified with respect to the future management and possible extension of the existing protected areas network in order to mitigate against some of the adverse impacts of climate change on biodiversity.


(3) Strategies

1.1.1. Strengthen Wetland Plannaing & Management

Action 1 Training in Wetland Management, Planning and management
1.1.1.1 Training on Wetland Management (TNFD staff)
1.1.1.2 Wetland Participatory Management Planning
1.1.1.3 Implement Wetland Action Plans
  a) Enhance aquatic habitats and aquatic species diversity/composition
  b) Enhance peripheral and nearby terrestrial habitats for birds
Action 2 Survey and monitoring
1.1.1.4 Monitor and aquatic vegetation
1.1.1.5 Monitor bird diversity and abundance
1.1.1.6 Routinely survey birds for contagious diseases (e.g. bird flu)
Action 3 Documentation, interpretation and information sharing
1.1.1.7 Interpret and display research findings in multi-media for the benefit of visitors (Tamil, Hindi, English)
1.1.1.8 Enter geo-referenced data in biodiversity database/GIS


1.1.2. Improve critical habitats (terrestrial and aquatic) by removing invasive direct lender and alien species

Action 1 Training and field review of alien species management
1.2.1.1 Training on management of alien species, with field review of speciesto be removed (TNFD staff)
1.2.1.2 Strategy and manual on management of invasive alien species (Tamil and English)
Action 2 Survey, monitoring and reporting
1.2.1.3 Baseline survey what is project payday of biodiversity in critical habitats prior to removal of alien species
1.2.1.4 Monitor biodiversity in critical habitats after removal of invasive species
1.2.1.5 Enter geo-referenced data in biodiversity database/GIS
Action 3 Removal of invasive species
1.2.1.6 a) Phased removal of Lantana, Prosopis from dry forest
  b) Phased removal of wattle from shola ecosystem in the hills


1.1.3. Strengthen Wetland Plannaing & Management

Action 1 Develop species conservation plans
1.1.3.1 a) Develop species conservation plans for dugong payday loan in PalkBay (5 years)
b) Develop species conservation plants for sea turtles in 8 coastal divisions/districts (5 years)
Action 2 Implement species conservation plans
1.1.3.2 a) Implement conservation plans (dugong) including ex-situ measures as appropriate (5 years)
b) Implement conservation plants (sea turtles) including ex-situ measures as appropriate (5 years)
1.1.3.3 Conserve ex-situ priority CR plant species in gene-pool garden at Nadugani
1.1.3.4 Development of interpretation centre at Nadugani
1.1.3.5 Immunise livestock in periphery of all PAs to prevent transmission of diseases to payday 2 wiki wildlife
Action 3 Survey, monitoring direct payday lenders and documentation
1.1.3.6 Undertake status and distribution surveys of selected CR/EN/DD taxa in the wild
1.1.3.7 Enter geo-referenced data in biodiversity database/GIS


1.1.4 Improve management of water, habitat and herbivores in Guindy National Park

Action 1 Training on water resource management, planning and implementation
1.1.4.1 Assess water resources and develop Water Management Strategy and Action Plan to address biodiversity and supplementary supply needs
1.1.4.2 Water storage and distribution interventions (including underground storage and invasive removal)
a) Create permanent waterholes
b) Improve water storage and supply
Action 2 Habitat management and enhancement
1.1.4.3 Assess capacity of present vegetation to support current herbivore population
1.1.4.4 Remove invasive species to retain integrity of vegetation and provide grazing for herbivores


1.1.5 Improve management of water, habitat and herbivores in Vallanadu Blackbuck Sanctuary

Action 1 Enhance water resources and grazing to sustain blackbuck population
1.1.5.1 Develop Water Management Strategy and Action Plan and strengthen management plan
1.1.5.2 Improve water retention capacity within seasonal water bodies
a) Create permanent waterholes
b) Improve water storage and supply
1.1.5.3 Increase grasslands for blackbuck by removing previously introduced woody scrub


1.1.6 Improve management of water in other PAs and RFs

Action 1 Enhance water resources for wildlife
1.1.6.1 Develop Water Management Strategy and Action Plan
1.1.6.2 Improve water retention capacity within seasonal water bodies
a) Create permanent waterholes
b) Improve water storage payday loans near me and supply
1.1.6.3 Monitor biodiversity and socio-economic impacts of interventions


1.1.7 Monitor impacts of climate change on biodiversity

Action 1 Establish long-term programme to monitor impacts of climate change on biodiversity
1.1.7.1 Identify vegetation types representing climatic/topographic gradients in Tamil Nadu
1.1.7.2 Undertake baseline surveys of biodiversity distribution and status in vegetation types
1.1.7.2 Manual on monitoring and analysis protocols (Tamil and English)
1.1.7.2 Undertake second surveys of biodiversity following 5-year interval
1.1.7.3 Enter geo-referenced data in biodiversity database/GIS
1.1.7.3 Report on survey results (Tamil and English)